Why doesn’t Stockton annex Lincoln Center?

Today, Stockton voters head to the polls to vote on a sales tax increase to fund more police officers and pay creditors. Certainly, a city struggling through bankruptcy needs to think creatively about increasing revenue. So, as Stocktonians decide the fate of Measures A and B, here is another idea to boost sales tax revenue: Annex Lincoln Center.

If you didn’t already know, Lincoln Center is not a part of Stockton, despite being right in the middle of the city. The shopping center technically doesn’t belong to any city, but exists only as an area of San Joaquin County. And as an unincorporated area, all revenue generated at Lincoln Center flows to the county, not the city, even though shoppers drive on Stockton roads to get there. There are actually areas like Lincoln Center throughout Stockton. Could annexing these areas help solve Stockton’s money woes?

These unincorporated areas—or “islands” as they are typically referred to—were built before the city of Stockton had developed around them. Stockton eventually grew around and beyond these areas, engulfing communities formerly surrounded by farmland (the easiest indicator of an “island” is the absence of sidewalks). These areas remained independent, even though they blended seamlessly into the city. Islands formed special districts to pay for services, either from the county or even through contracts with the city in the case of fire protection. Over time, some islands have been incorporated, but larger swaths such as Country Club and Lincoln Village are still technically outside of city limits.

Lincoln Village was built before Stockton had extended its boundaries north. Eventually, Stockton grow around Lincoln Village, and the area remains part of the county. (photo c/o Alice van Ommeren)

Lincoln Village was built before Stockton had extended its boundaries north. Eventually, Stockton grow around Lincoln Village, and the area remains part of the county. (photo c/o Alice van Ommeren)

This is problematic for a few reasons. On top of potential lost revenue, these islands make it awkward for the city to evenly administer services. The Stockton Police Department may be responsible for providing service on one side of the street, while the San Joaquin County Sheriff’s Department patrols the other side. School districts also reach across city lines. And instead of voting for city officials, residents of unincorporated areas vote for county officials, even though it’s the decisions made by the city that mostly affect their day-to-day lives.

These are not insignificant areas, either. In terms of population, there are approximately 40,000 people living in unincorporated Stockton, which would bring the city’s actual population closer to 340,000, larger than Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and St. Louis, Missouri.

A map of Stockton's "Sphere of Influence" shows a number of areas within the city that are technically a part of the county (sorce: San Joaquin Local Agency Formation Commission)

A map of Stockton’s “Sphere of Influence” shows a number of areas within the city that are technically a part of the county (sorce: San Joaquin Local Agency Formation Commission)

This of course begs the question: why not annex these areas to raise revenue through new property taxes? It’s an idea that has been kicked around before. In 2002, the city looked in to the costs and benefits of bringing large islands into the city. However, it was determined that doing so would actually cost the city money. Putting in sidewalks and bringing other infrastructure up to the city’s standards would cost more than property taxes would bring in, most likely resulting in a net loss revenue wise for the city.

Moreover, annexing large areas such as Lincoln Village or Country Club would be fairly complex. While state law allows cities to annex city-surrounded communities under 150 acres in size without protest, larger areas still must be approved by a vote from the area’s residents who may not be thrilled to be joining a city. In addition to new ordinances that would come along with being absorbed by another municipality, there are also added taxes. Stockton residents pay a 6% utility tax on water and sewage that newly annexed areas would be subject to as well (though property tax itself would remain the same).

For residential areas, clearly the city wouldn’t gain much in terms of revenue. However, commercial areas are another matter. For example, because Lincoln Center is technically not a part of Stockton, all tax revenue generated goes to the county. In theory, if Lincoln Center was annexed separately from surrounding residential areas, the city would have an instant, reliable new source of revenue from an area that already benefits from city services. Unfortunately, while good on paper, executing such a plan would be difficult as the county would be reluctant to give up a revenue-generating commercial property. If the annexation of Lincoln Center were pursued, the city and county would have to negotiate a tax-sharing agreement, meaning that even when annexed, the county would still get some percentage of tax revenue from the shopping center. Property owners may also object, triggering a protest vote.

Annexations to Stockton, 2005-2010 (source: San Joaquin Local Agency Formation Commission)

Annexations to Stockton, 2005-2010 (source: San Joaquin Local Agency Formation Commission)

But Stockton is bankrupt, so while this process seems lengthy (and potentially politically unpopular), anything that could bring in profit should be considered. Even if the county retains a chunk of the sales tax, as long as revenue exceeded costs, why would the city not look in to annexing Lincoln Center, or any other unincorporated commercial areas for that matter? There are commercial areas in Country Club as well as the strip of businesses along Thornton Road, north of Hammer Lane. If we are going to raise the sales tax, should the city also consider capturing money that is already being spent within Stockton?

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Categories: Community Commentary

Author:David A. Garcia

David A. Garcia created SCL in March of 2012. Garcia is a Stockton native with a background in urban policy and planning, holding a Bachelor's Degree from UCLA as well as a Master's Degree in Public Policy from the Johns Hopkins Institute for Policy Studies. He currently serves as the Policy Director at the UC Berkeley Terner Center for Housing Innovation. David was also COO at Ten Space, a real estate development firm focused exclusively on Downtown Stockton, and continues to advise on their projects. Prior to that, he worked three years as a researcher/analyst for a Congressional research agency in Washington, DC. The views expressed on this site are entirely of the author's

4 Comments on “Why doesn’t Stockton annex Lincoln Center?”

  1. L.W.G.
    November 5, 2013 at 10:54 am #

    Excellent Article.

  2. November 5, 2013 at 12:01 pm #

    I agree, it definitely needs reexamined. I don’t recall when Lucky’s/S-Mart + Payless/RiteAid became one mega Safeway with a continually packed parking lot and gas station, but I believe(?) it was either after 2002 or not long before(?). In addition, business at Trader Joe’s has only grown since then (though a number of businesses on the north side of Ben Holt have closed as well). Regardless, it’s worth looking into.

  3. Don Heisig
    November 6, 2013 at 7:19 am #

    Lincoln Center has its own sales tax district that goes to Lincoln Center’s owners. They will fight tooth and nail to keep their windfall.

  4. Jon Seisa
    November 8, 2013 at 12:03 am #

    I’m just curious, not to be off topic… but why did they decide to name this county community “Lincoln Village”? Obviously it’s after President Abraham Lincoln, but why? I was just curious as to their rationale. Was it to commemorate the 1961 centennial of Lincoln’s 1861 presidency? I thought Lincoln Village was around in the mid or late 50’s, though. (You would think they would have a memorial monument to Lincoln there in a stunning plaza fountain.) There is a Lincoln Avenue in Stockton, but it’s too removed from this area, further south from Harding in the Civic District to south of the Channel. And the Lincoln Highway was basically Route 99 through Central Stockton and then southward on El Dorado Street, again removed from the Lincoln Village vicinity. Anyone have a clue? I can’t seem to find any history on it on the net.

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